Since the appliance of electricity in the water may have as an effect production of alpha particles or helium 4 low level radiation an explanation of the reactions is included alongside. The Boson and the Fermion’s particles theories were used for this experiment as a way to prove the production of radiation and the conclusion is that the new weak interaction field theory secures the certainty of knowing the results of the strong force reactions without having any doubts whether reactions occurred.
Dielectric Medium application in the water
A 12 V battery electricity insertion into the water medium. A dielectric media such as that of a battery applies electrons to the tap water and the turbulence it causes inside the water results in releases of hydrogen protons and electrons from the water molecules. By applying the battery voltage in the water, oxygen atoms make bubbles and rise up to the surface. This is a temporary refreshing of dissolved oxygen process to the fish, aiding the water to escape from any stagnant condition in the tank. The electrons released are from the hydrogen atoms of the water molecule because hydrogen is the lightest in its molecular mass and needs negligible amounts of energy to react and actually its atoms make divisions to proton nuclei and free electrons. A proton is a micro particle with known small mass and the protons that stay in the water start to repel each other inducing initially small rises in temperature whereas according to the second law of thermodynamics the whole system will have continuity. By applying energy with a chemical way such as the chemically produced electricity inside a battery the negative pole or negative black copper cable becomes an exit of electrons to the water. The positive cable or red cable by being thicker doesn’t allow electrons to exit. Copper element has one electron in its outer orbit and the thin one negative cable can provide an easier avenue for electrons whereas the thick red positive cable stops them.
Cables made of copper are the commonest in the market and the flux of electrons from the source of the battery to the water is bigger compared to the flux of electrons from the water to the battery storage. This is because the battery contains electricity in an organised and directed way whereas the flux of the electrons from the tap water to the battery is much smaller. It may be true however to collect electricity in a profitable way from the ocean wave in a planned and well designed manner.
A cable which carry a heavy load of electrons heats up fast so it should be thick to carry the current especially if the distance is large. However here is not the case of the load of the current but rather to complete the experiment of nuclear transmutation. That is why in the second phase iron cables were used instead of copper ones.
A fusion and a fission reaction definitions. A fusion reaction is an atomic reaction in which atoms combine to make a single more massive atom. A fission reaction involves the nuclei of some atoms to decay and break into smaller more stable nuclei during a process called nuclear fission. The mass changes and associated energy changes in nuclear reactions are significant. Energy and mass are equivalent according to Einstein. Fission reactions occur as a decay of an atom when neutrons are passing by close to a nucleus.
Nuclear reactions are associated with energy that is released when the atoms split or in the creation of new atoms. The energy released by heating 1 Kg of Uranium in nuclear reactions is equal to 4 billion Kg of coal burned. When nucleons or particles that comprise atomic structures capture neutrons then energy is released as a beta particle that then converts or not to a proton an electron and an antineutrino. A beta particle is a form of radiation and the whole process is described with the word radioactivity. By reading Rutherford correctly every element is radioactive.
Water as a nuclear medium that provides energetic particles. The kinetic energy of particles can increase infinitely whereas the speed of them has limits. Water molecules with two ways in this experiment acquire and build more quantity of energy and increase the kinetic energy of their electrons as well as the electrons speed. The one way is by heat where according to the second law of thermodynamics water will speed up atoms and electrons contained in it till the evaporation level of molecules and beyond that. The other way is the application of voltage. Most of the energy to the electrons and atoms and protons of hydrogen atoms as well as to the oxygen atoms was gained by electricity appliance inside the water.
DC, and AC types of electricity current. The battery applied (DC) direct current. In direct current (DC) the electricity process is steady and by converting such process to home appliances that sustain on and off switches to accelerating current (AC), regular inverters found in market that do this conversion.
Skin effect and right choice of elements as cables. The electrons that stick on the surface of a cable in a significant quantity due to heavy traffic can cause the so-called skin effect. In a copper cable situation the orbits of this element have 2-8-18-1 electrons respectively and copper takes or gives more easily the electrons through its outer orbit because this consists of one electron. For that reason the selection of cables is by elements that have one outer electron so as to cause easily the flux. That is why elements similar to copper with one electron in their outer orbit are preferred for various electricity situations and examples of this are silver and gold cables. Gold as cable has the capacity to heat up more and this situation applies in relatively higher demands for the total current. Thick cables such as gold ones have uses to transfer electrons resisting in relatively more heat than copper ones and accordingly is for silver ones.
Chemical composition of the reacting water in detail
Hydrogen isotopes. There are three isotopes of hydrogen, the most common being the protium that has only one proton in the nucleus. The second most common form of hydrogen is in the deuterium isotope with one neutron and one proton in the nucleus whereas the third isotope is tritium with one proton and two neutrons in the nucleus of the atom.
Deuterium nuclei. Neutrons in motion is the starting point for everything that happens in a nuclear reaction. When a neutron passes near to a heavy nucleus the neutron may be captured by the nucleus and a fusion reaction occurs. By having deuterium water in motion atoms of the deuterium that have lost their electrons and their bond with oxygens from their initial water molecules are said to be composed solely of deuterium nuclei. This is the result of a voltage application turbulence process and the deformation of D2O deuterium water molecules is to become several nuclei with a proton and neutron.
Increase of deuterium concentration inside the tank. The boiling point of deuterium is 101.4 degrees Celsius meaning that by boiling water, which is mostly with protium atoms of hydrogen plus oxygen atom in the molecules, much of the protium evaporates and leaves the more inert deuterium in the kettle by increasing its concentration. The heated water that remained in the kettle has more energetic deuterium water molecules compared to what they had been before the heating process whereas the energy quantity of these deuterium atoms changes even more critically by applying electricity to the water. Every deuterium molecule that reaches near and slightly under the boiling temperature of 101.4 degrees Celsius escapes the evaporation stays in the kettle forming an asset of a substance to produce further nuclear chain reactions by acquiring more energy when the electricity process starts. Therefore there is an important margin in the boiling temperature between the 100 degrees Celsius evaporation temperature for the protium isotope of hydrogen and the 101.4 degrees Celsius for the deuterium isotopes. It is quite likely the hydrogen atoms inside the kettle to lose their bond to oxygen atoms due to the thermodynamics during the boil and to evaporate as protium gas atoms.
Hydrogen and Helium. It is quite probable the creation of tritium isotopes of hydrogen during the electrifying process of the water that has high concentration in deuterium. In such case the chain reactions are called to be nuclear because they include the proven radioactivity of tritium. Hydrogen isotopes are targets for experimentation in nuclear physics because hydrogen is the first element in the periodic table, it has vast distance from the heavier radioactive elements and therefore hydrogen produces the safest level of radioactivity. As Rutherford described is feasible to fuse practically every element of the periodic table with radioactive results and perhaps this is the strongest argument against Malthusian extremists who do not welcome experimentation because there is safety in it. The second element in the periodic table is Helium with atomic number 2 and the isotopes Helium 3 and 4 are under consideration although there are nine known isotopes of helium, and the longest lived is Helium 6 with a half life of 806.7 milliseconds. The writing of this experiment stopped in Helium and proof that Helium was produced was done with probabilities examinations by the use also of the weak force interaction field.
Description of possible reactions inside the water. Hydrogen D (deuterium) and T (tritium) decay into Helium. Helium 3 has two protons and one neutron in its nucleus whereas Helium 4 has two protons and two neutrons. A neutron can fuse into deuterium D and form tritium T whereas deuterium D fuses with deuterium D to form T tritium. Deuterium with tritium fuses to form Helium 3 or 4. Helium 3 is unstable according to the Boson Higgs theory and stabilises into the relatively more stable Helium 4. Helium 4 is identical to an alpha particle and some of the helium stays trapped between water molecules in the tank without affecting the reproduction of algae. Algae with helium in the water disperse their gametes without having a problem whereas human cannot get any adverse affects from small quantities of helium 4 alpha particles because alpha particles cannot penetrate the human skin.
Tritium and precaution to the drinking water in Canada and Finland. Tritium is radioactive and the permitted dose of drinking tritium water for humans in Canada is 7000Bq/L (Becquerel per litre). One Becquerel is one radioactive decay per second, which translates into an annual effective dose of 0.1 mSv if consumed at a rate of two litres per day. In other countries such as Finland the limit is far larger to 30000Bq/L. 7000Bq/L seems as a vast concern for tritium drinking water, which on the same time is less important in Finland. Perhaps this margin reveals the lack of support on the Canadian authorities to express fully what is their real fear about tritium. Canadian problems in living outdoors and exploring at risk new shelter is rather a small issue. According to Gonsior, Friedman and Ehhalt tritium has increased as result of A bombs in the atmosphere due to the bombs dropped in Japan. However the winds can transfer with some probability moisture all around the sea and the Canadian authorities seem to make public relations with reference on tritium. Even though the tritium concentration may be similar in the atmosphere between Finland and Canada the Canadians are supposingly stricter against the actual bomb making because of their aggressiveness of their neighbour, the US government.
More on this issue the Canadian authorities get more justification in their limit to tritium because of the average planning, designing, and operating of commercial nuclear sites by the US where there is leakage of tritium to 48 out of 65 nuke sites at a time.
Countries in cold northern and close to poles latitudes need more electricity at homes in order to live. Iceland use 60,000 KWh per household per year. Similar is the need for electricity to Canada for obvious reasons that have to do with heating, cooking and also perhaps exploring new territory. Canadians as a conclusion prove even by this little information about tritium the serious way they face the nuclear issues because in case they need to electrify more Canada they should be cautious about every substance related to nukes.
Tritium effective dose for the United States of America. International standards, guidelines action levels and limits vary from 100 Bq/L to 30,000 Bq/L the later large number of tritium accepted dose is in Finland. The margin between 100 – 30,000 radioactive decays per second proves subjectivity. The accepted effective dose of radioactivity in the United States is 6.3 mSv/ year. One Bq/L = 0.1 mSV. Therefore 6.3 mSv x 7,000Bq/L x 10 = 4,410,000 radioactive decays of tritium per second allowed per year in Canada and millions of more with no harm in Finland.
Natural radioactivity in relation with tritium. Naturally occurring tritium in the world is formed by cosmic rays hitting the atmosphere. The recommended reduction of the tritium dose in Canada to 20 Bq/L translates to an effective dose of 0.0003mSv a dose reduction of 0.0997 msV/year. The acute toxic effects of tritium are far from evident in a very small tritium dose aquarium experiment with large numbers of reactions in which tritium water can be tolerant by the algae and the fish to 100%. Fish that die in the aquarium tank are not because of tritium experimentation but more probable reasons for that are not tolerance to salinity for some species, lack of dissolved oxygen, and the acidic pH.
Tritium in nuclear reactors. Tritium is produced at a relatively smaller rate in the heat transport system of a uranium plant compared to the majority of its production from the water moderator. As such an operating 700 MW nuclear power unit can have a tritium inventory exceeding 10 ¹⁷ Bq and multiple barriers can minimise releases. (Wong et al.1984).
Tritium production in terms of safety. In 1000 g of water there are 1000g/18g = 55.6 moles of water. One mole is 6 x 10 ²³ atoms of water and there are 3 x 55.6 x 6×10 ²³ ~ (ratio hydrogen to oxygen atoms 2/1 in the molecule of water) ~ 10 ¹⁷- 10 ¹⁸ number of atoms of hydrogen, for an assumed water the density of 1 g/ml. In a bottle of water that has these atoms of hydrogen (~ 10 ¹⁸) and when the nuclear reactions of water taken place and exceed this number of 4,441,000 radioactive decays per second then that water may become acute toxic when drank. The acute dose number for tritium drinking water is far less than the actual number of hydrogen atoms in the water because the process starts from the deuterium isotopes which are not so many either.
On a comparison on the one hand is 4 million radioactive decays allowed per year in Canada and on the other hand is the number of approximately 10 ¹⁸ hydrogen atoms which are not all tritiums neither deuterium but mainly protium isotopes of hydrogen. Therefore there is a gap for a reaction in respect to time so as to be harmful but also the fraction 4million decays/ 10 ¹⁸ atoms gives an indication to understand when to stop the reaction so as not to produce more tritium. By combining Finland’s allowance to USA total acute radioactive dose the comparison is 30,000 Bq/L (Finland) / 7,000 Bq/L (Canada) = 4,28 times more radioactive decays per second allowed in Finland x 4,441,000 = 19,032,857.14 radioactive decays per second allowed in Finland. Tritium’s occurrence is less than deuterium, which is at 1 in 6420 hydrogen atom in the ocean. Therefore the risk of this experiment for the previous limitations is not existent because this number of 19,032,857.14 radioactive reactions cannot be found by hydrogen isotopes because the reacting of those isotopes are much less in a 30 gallons of a water tank. The application of electricity was from a 12 V batter with 1 Amp current that lasted 30 minutes.
Tritium inside the human body. Tritium in large quantities should be avoided to drink because it is an alpha particle and can cause mutation and cancer since it enters the human body. Tritium has a biological time inside a human body of 7-14 days, in other words this is the time it needs to distribute evenly to the organs and get secreted afterwards out of the body. It is an assumption that the occurrence of tritium in small doses in the body as a medical care perhaps can affect cancer cells in the similar time scale of the x-ray treatment use by doctors. However further examination whether tritium in small dose is on the positive side of a medical treatment should be necessary so as to prove the beneficial action of this isotope of hydrogen.
Tritium presence in nature, nuclear plants and water electricity experiments.Tritium is also generated by the interaction of neutrons and heavy hydrogen during the fission of uranium with heavy deuterium water. Deuterium is relatively easy in an industrial process to produce in significant quantity by the working plant that works with uranium fuel for enough time. And since the uranium pellets need some time to exhaust to a certain point, the collection of tritium water from the reactor and the proper shielding of these plants acquires even on that aspect significance because leakage of tritium adds in its concentration on the environment. Some other experiments written on the world wide web refer that tritium has not a problem to go to the plants as a waste management treatment but this needs further investigation whether the roots of the trees for example can cope with it because roots carry useful bacteria and worms that may not be tolerant to tritium in large quantities. However this risk is minimum regarding the small scale of reactions on this particular experiment.
Tritium in drinking water occurrence. Tritium in drinking water can be compared to levels of natural background radiation exposure and the corresponding risks of cancer. A 1000-mSv acute total body dose increases the risk of cancer mortality over the lifetime by 5% above the average population risk of 25%.
For tritium 1,000 mSv dose is equivalent to 1,000 x 0.1 = 10,000 Bq/L. That dose is acute when taken in one day. The Canadian government suggests for safety reasons to drink 7,000 Bq/L per year. 7,000Bq/L divided by 365 = 19,178 Bq/L per day as the total allowed. By considering the limit for 30,000Bq/L in Finland divided to 19,178 Bq/Lxday gives a number of 1564 times more. This means that for a Finnish standard someone needs to drink 1564 more tritium water glasses per day than he/she drinks usually so as to have acute toxic effect.
Cancer chances of increase due to tritium drinking. Βy drinking Tritiated Water THO per day at the levels that Canada proposes then the risk of exposure to cancer has 0.00043% to 0.00072% chances to increase compared to the given background cancer risk of 25%.
Consuming water at 20 Bq/L per day over a 75year span corresponds to a one in a million chances to cancer risk. However the most dangerous attitude towards tritium water is to drink it whereas it has minimum to none risk by inhaling tritium gas hydrogen. Tritiated water gas vapour has also low risk to inhale it because it disperses in the atmosphere due to its very small atomic weight.
The probability of the reactions to occur and radiation comparison
Radioactive reactions. A deuterium nuclear fusion means that one neutron passes by the deuterium nucleus and is been captured to form tritium. That is considered a decay to a higher energy level from deuterium to tritium, whereas tritium may fall again to deuterium to a lower energy level according to the r,s process described by Burbridge, Fowler and Hoyle. Actually there are many reactions in fusion and fission processes and the final outcome varies according to various reasons that need examination in detail for making a specific conclusion about the probable outcomes of them. A decay of tritium to helium can give Helium 4 with which is identical to an alpha particle with two protons and two neutrons. Capture of neutrons by a nucleus means that this reaction forms other elements or isotopes of them. Nuclear reaction of water that contains hydrogen induces neutrons to bind to the deuterium nuclei and form tritium isotopes or atoms. In theory this is a fusion reaction of deuterium to tritium. The vortices and movements that mainly protons and electrons create in the water tank create chances of the neutral in charge neutron particle to reach other nuclei and fuse and this is happening with the thermal energy capacity it acquires which has kinetic energy in it.
Emission of beta particles in heavy water reactions and comparison of radiation.Beta particles can also emit in a heavy water radioactive process since there are neutrons. By having the presence of neutrons and make them react by applying kinetic energy on them is probable that fusion or fission reactions will outcome new neutrons transforming themselves into protons, electrons and antineutrinos, the later transformation being the definition of the beta particle emission.
The emission of beta particles by tritium is weakly radioactive, 7,000 emissions of beta particles by tritium equals 1 emission by Uranium and 70,000 decays of tritium equal 1 radioactive emission of Thorium. The allowable limit for Radon 25 is 1,000 Bq and for Potassium 40 is 4,400 Bq, whereas for Carbon is 14 3,080 Bq, for Rubidium 600 Bq and for Polonium is 37 Bq for Canada. (From Wikipedia).
According to the New Physics explanation
Helium 4 as a Boson, the four Force Fields, hadrons and quarks.
Protons and neutrons are hadrons and their comparison with the boson Higgs particle. Odd numbers of hadrons make a fermion particle whereas even numbers of hadrons make a boson. Helium 4, is a boson, and has analogues properties as to the boson Higgs particle such as zero spin. A boson Higgs particle is under the weak force interaction field, which is one among the other three force fields. The first is the gravitational force field firstly discovered and mostly solved on earth to a great extent with car machines airplanes boats and many more, the second one is the electromagnetic force field with significant successes in electricity businesses and also in the production of goods or manufacturing whereas the third is the strong force field with design successes in atomic or in other words nuclear plants. The weak interaction force field is in very close association to the atom in the strong force field and is in proximity to it so as to make feasible reactions to occur. A lot of people may think that the Higgs boson particle is something small, or a particle in chaos that speaks to humans as God, but the truth is that it is among the micro-particles that have relatively big size. Actually is huge in size relatively to the small very known particles of the strong force field such as the neutron, the proton and the electron. Boson Higgs particle lasts very shortly in time in the strong force field and has a meaning there to do its work and form new elements and substances producing energy releases which are again mass according to Einstein’s Theory of Relativity (On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies). If it was not huge relatively speaking to the other hadrons as they called the neutrons and the protons mainly, it wouldn’t have power to affect them and cause them to react effectively. For the shake of clarifying more the terms, the hadrons on their behalf are made of other micro-particles called quarks. Protons and neutrons each contain three quarks. A proton is composed of two ‘Up’ quarks and one ‘Down’ quark while neutrons are composed of one ‘Up’ quark and two ‘Down’ quarks. https://education.jlab.org/qa/quark_03.html (Jefferson Lab Science and Education).
A proton is made of three quarks, and is also a fermion. A Helium 4 atom is made of 2 protons, 2 neutrons and 2 electrons, hence it is a boson.
Helium 3 as a fermion. On the same logic as above Helium 3 is a fermion and behaves in an analogues way following Fermi – Dirac Statistics. It is associated more with matter whereas Helium 4 is a force carrier. Helium 3 associated with matter means that is associated fast with Helium 4 matter for example. Helium 3 is a fast reacting multiple 3 hadron making Helium hadron 4. Helium 3 has too little concentration in this solar system compared to Helium 4 and this is another proof of its fast reaction to Helium 4. Helium 4 is associated with force because it has a force to produce more other elements. A hadron multiple 3 and a hadron multiple 4 means that they have 3 and 4 hadrons each.
Capture of neutrons by nuclei. Whether capture occurs or not depends on the thermal energy capacity of the passing neutrons, which translates into kinetic energy. It also depends on which nucleus are going to fuse in terms of its atomic number. A hydrogen deuterium nucleus is easy to reach compared to a uranium nucleus because of the density of the electrons around it. By heating an atom the electrons will produce a concentrated mass called plasma of electrons and this mass would deprive the space of the nucleus to get affected by other free neutrons.
Energy of a neutron in order to cause fusion reactions. Some experiments say that nuclear reactions can only occur if the incident neutrons have energy above one million electron volts. Newly created fission neutrons are in this category and move at about 7 % of the speed of light. Moderate neutrons move slower and according to Frank H. Shu, 1982 even a slow neutron can produce a nuclear fusion reaction.
The motion of particles has two major attributes of concern the one is their speed and the other is their kinetic energy. Their speed can reach a maximum close to the speed of light and probably less of it but their kinetic energy based on the 2nd law of thermodynamics can increase without limit. According to the density or traffic of the electrons in the copper cable the turbulence caused inside the medium such as the water may cause the neutrons to acquire the necessary kinetic energy so as to fuse.
Limits of the experiment due to copper material in cables. By inserting a copper cable connected to a battery in the water the electricity will exist up to the point that the salts of the water make a thick surrounding around the copper cables that will stop further flux of the electrons and may even erode the cables. The copper cable is absorbing salts gradually and the cleaning up the salts from the cable will make it capable again for more electrons to pass through it. This need for cleaning would provide a stop in the appliance of electricity so as to provide a safety measure. A limit time of 30 minutes reactions is enough to prevent large amounts of tritium formation.
High temperature in reactions. Fusion reactions can have more chances to occur by increasing temperature. In high temperatures plasma, which is a high-energy state of electrons, matter is formed where all the electrons are stripped from atoms and move freely. The Sun achieves very high temperatures by its large mass and with the force of its own gravity is compressing masses in its core. At a human environment microwaves and lasers can reach the result of very high temperatures in reactions.
High pressure in reactions. Pressure also squeezes atoms together and this event provides the necessary distance for fusion. Atoms must be in a short distance between them so as to fuse such as within 1 x 10 ¯⁵ m of each other. By using intense magnetic fields power lasers or ion beams hydrogen atoms can squeeze together. With current technology are achievable temperatures and pressures necessary to make deuterium – tritium fusion possible. Deuterium – Deuterium fusion requires higher temperatures and that fusion may give Helium 4.
Deuterium Isotope of Hydrogen. Most of the natural deuterium on earth has been produced by the Big Bang. Deuterium is a stable isotope of hydrogen with a mass approximately twice that of the usual isotope. 2D or ²H heavy hydrogen atom has a nucleus with one proton and one neutron whereas the far more common protium hydrogen isotope has no neutrons in the nucleus and has only one proton. Deuterium has a rare natural abundance in Earth’s Ocean and counts for approximately 0.0056% or on a mass basis of 0.0312% of all the naturally occurring hydrogen in the oceans, while protium accounts for more than 99,98 %. Deuterium is destroyed in the interiors of stars faster than it is produced and nearly all deuterium found in nature was produced in the Big Bang 13,8 billion years ago.
By using the assumption that there are 26 atoms of deuterium per one million hydrogen atoms then in one litre of water there are approximately 1000g/18 g = 55.6 moles of water x 3 x 6 x 10 ²³ atoms. In these atoms 2/1 are hydrogen atoms and the rest are oxygens. Therefore there are approximately 10 ¹⁷ atoms of hydrogen in 1000g of water. From these 10 ¹⁷ atoms of hydrogen only 2.6 x 10 ¹² are deuterium atoms isotopes of hydrogen. If the assumed occurrence is 1 deuterium atom per 6420 atoms of hydrogen then deuterium natural concentration is 1.56 x 10 ¹² per 10 ¹⁷ atoms of total hydrogen in 1000 g of water.
According to some other sources the natural abundance of Deuterium can be ~ 110 parts per million and a lot of people who make detail analysis of those numbers are mainly interested for the industrial production of deuterium because of its use in uranium reactors.
Deuterium is found also in the gas of giant planets such as Jupiter. However other astronomical bodies are found to have different ratios of deuterium to hydrogen. In comets is thought to be a result of natural isotope separation processes that occurs from solar heating of ices as comets orbit the sun. The water cycle in Earth’s weather can enrich deuterium with respect to protium in specific parts of the ocean. The analysis of deuterium protium ratios in comets found results very similar to the mean ratio in Earth’s Oceans to 156 atoms of deuterium per one million hydrogens. The deuterium/protium ratio of the comet 67 P/ Churyumov – Gerasimenko as measured by the Rosetta space probe is about three times that of the earth water. This figure is the highest yet measured in a comet. Deuterium/ protium ratios thus continue to be an active topic of research in both astronomy and climatology.
Boiling of water. By boiling the water at 100 degrees Celsius protium water escapes as vapour and this process concentrates more the deuterium water. The boiling point of deuterium water is 101.4 degrees Celsius and because is slightly higher than the boiling point of protium water deuterium stays in the kettle if the temperature does not reach the 101.4 degrees Celsius. This margin is of 1.4 degrees Celsius is an important detail that shows how to increase the natural concentration of the deuterium that the tap water has.
Electrolysis of water with chemical additions and electrodes. Some experiments refer that electrolysis of water strongly favours Hydrogen atoms being converted to hydrogen gas by increasing D (deuterium) concentration by a factor of about 8 to 1. And by adding NaOH in the water this increases the original concentration of deuterium by a factor of 12. In other words the ionisation of water to H+ and OH- releases concentrates hydrogen ions in a liquid form. Hydrogen in a liquid form holds an energy that resembles the -259.14 °C of its melting point. The difference of that temperature to the boiling temperature (-252.87 °C) is about 7 degrees. By applying electricity to the water the formation of hydrogen gas is easy.
However deuterium is heavier and more inert than protium meaning that with electrolysis processes the most probable isotope of hydrogen to become gas and escape is the protium. Similar experiments also refer that with chemical addition or with electrodes the deuterium concentration can reach 10% in the water.
By bringing water to a boil to break up the polymerisation and increase the number of single water molecules and then cool it rapidly so there is less time for them to participate again in polymer groups the result is that deuterium stays separated in different places within the water tank. The concentration of deuterium then may be able to rise even more.
Natural electricity in water. The voltage that the tap water has before the application of the chemical energy from the battery can give a reading point in the voltmeter more than 0 and close to 0.1 Volts or more and the bigger the water tank the bigger the natural electricity of the water that is due to electromagnetic forces already exerting in a small scale before the application of the coulomb forces.
Coulomb Forces. By applying voltage with a battery is possible to inject through the copper cable electrons and cause mobility to the water molecules. This kinetic energy induced to the water causes water molecules to split to oxygen and hydrogen atoms. Electrons are dispersed in the water tank whereas protium or deuterium hydrogen acquires on their behalf kinetic energy. By having increased with a boiler the concentration of deuterium to protium hydrogen ratios the application of Coulomb forces from the battery releases also electrons from the deuterium atoms and creates free deuterium nuclei. This is the starting points of nuclear reactions in the water tank because neutrons reach to an intermediate freedom state. By inserting even more electrons kinetic energy in the water so as to break the proton neutron bond in the D nuclei that gives the first assumed free neutron with considerable mobility.
Cherenkov radiation production probability. If the electrons that acquire kinetic energy by the dielectric medium application travel faster than the speed of light in that medium which is 0.75c for water then Cherenkov bluish radiation is formed which is mostly in ultraviolet frequencies. Prolonged exposure may hurt the eyes and the kin but most people consider this as a low harm radiation.
Moving electrons cause increasing probabilities for deuterium to deuterium fusion reactions. By applying electricity to water the protons that left from the protium nuclei repel each other and this repelling force is also true between two deuterium nuclei that have lost their electrons with the voltage application from a battery. The repelling force between positively charged nuclei such as deuterium ions can increase their distance between them in the water tank at a point in time. The electrons pull protons apart with their charged mass and alongside the protons they move the bonded neutrons of the D (deuterium) nuclei. The vortices of the electrons induced by the voltage actually stir the water and increase the probability of the reactions.
Deuterium’s nucleus probability to split into one single proton and one single neutron. Deuterium can be separated from other deuterium atoms or nuclei but is more difficult the electric forces to break the strong forces that bind neutrons and protons together in the nucleus as well as the quarks that make up those protons and neutrons and the other hadrons.
The binding energy of deuterium is 2.224 MeV and this is the energy the Coulomb forces should overcame in order to break deuterium to one proton and one neutron.
Mobilising deuterium in kinetic energy enough to fuse into ³He. The electricity current may not be able to split the deuterium nuclei in one step but can mobilise these nuclei. A typical number of kinetic energy for a neutron to perform fusion reactions is 100 MeV. A number of 10 ¹⁸ atoms of hydrogen in approximately 1000 g of water has with a 12 V appliance 12 x 10 ¹⁸ eV total kinetic energy and this amount is by far larger than the 100 MeV needed for a fusion reaction. This energy is also enough to cause the split of deuterium atom to one proton and one neutron, because of the small level of the binding energy between the two. By considering even the losses of the kinetic energy on the electrons is understandable that all the probability of deuterium to cause fusion reactions deuterium+ deuterium to Helium 3 is very big.
Laurent about Deuterium. The French physicist Laurent refers that even deuterium is radioactive and this has to due on which perspective is this examination. Even the conversion of nitrogen to oxygen by Rutherford used alpha particles and people tend to name an element as radioactive when a significant amount of radiation is released and usually when this radiation has extended ability to harm human cells. In other words every element is radioactive even the fusion of nitrogen to oxygen because all these reactions involve basic radioactive particles and emissions of energy that Rutherford described and discovered.
The potential of electricity in the water with a very great mass of kinetic energy to the electrons may cause two deuterium nuclei to fuse together and produce Helium and that is perhaps deuterium’s radioactivity Laurent described because a Helium 4 nucleus is equal an alpha particle which is radioactive.
Copper cables thickness. The copper cables are slightly different in thickness the black cables is known that are less thick and these are the cables that provide electrons in the water they perform their role as exits of electricity from a source by using the one electron of the outer orbit of the copper element. The red cable is thicker and blocks the exits of electrons creating a difference in the electricity potential that makes this experiment to operate. Voltage is putting molecules of the water in motion and gives them the necessary kinetic energy to pull or repel deuterium atoms or nuclei.
Deuterium fusion to helium. Considering the vast number of electrons set in a motion in the water tank this event can cause the deuterium fusion into Helium. By adding hot water there is increase in the probability of the reactions because heat gives even more kinetic energy to the water molecules. As the electrons start due to the flux from the copper cable the friction of collisions between them and with the molecules of the water that have not yet lost electrons and also with the protons and with the nuclei of deuterium or deuterium atoms they increase the total heat inside the tank with a following increase in the kinetic energy of all the above particles, the nuclei, or the chemical substances and this will go on up to the point that the salts of the water will block the further exit of electrons from the copper cable, whereas that block can also happen by the oxidation of the copper. After that stopping of the exit point of the electrons the temperature will decrease the water molecules will not have more kinetic energy to acquire from the copper cable connected to the battery and the reaction will slow down due to the physical cooling. By adding more cool water the retard of the reactions increases even more.
Using iron as a cable and observing the stratification of the water. By having in this experiment other cables than copper such as iron the process is also going on. Two layers of water, are been made one deep and one in the surface. The stratification of the water is seen better by having some organic material in the tank. The deep water is assumed to be a polymer of mainly water and organic traces whereas the light water on the surface is a water polymer with helium or generally speaking with lighter chemicals compared to the plain water molecules that have molecular weight 18g/mol.
Free neutron further decays or fuse into another nucleus. A fusion reaction creates a free neutron and this neutron would beta decay to create a proton an electron and an electron antineutrino. But if that decay doesn’t happen this free neutron may gain the kinetic energy required to pass near by another deuterium nuclei and cause it to fuse into tritium water. The probability of this event to happen increases to double or quadruple compared to the deuterium fusion to ³He because the new mass of one neutron compared to the D + D fusion to ³He is half the mass of the proton-neutron mass of the D nucleus or one quarter of it if we consider the kinetic energy of the electrons need to move two deuterium atoms.
The initial conclusion is that since deuterium is easy to concentrate in high numbers by boiling water or by giving electricity to it and since the electric forces are producing kinetic energy much higher than the mass of two neutrons plus two protons to fuse into Helium 3 then the reaction neutron + deuterium to form tritium is even more easy and probable to happen when the copper cables are still in the water.
Tritium is considered radioactive for more authors compared to the deuterium and this perhaps has only to say about the intensity of the radiation produced in terms of radioactivity. And that is because deuterium can fuse with tritium to produce Helium 4 that is identical to an alpha particle. According to the strong force field the probability to happen the fusion of deuterium with tritium is less because the mass of the particles involved is more than the neutron with the deuterium fusion but still is easy to occur with the 12 V battery because enough mobility is still given. How slow or fast moving neutrons can produce fusion reactions depends on the r, s process described by Burbridge, Fowler and Hoyle.
Fusion probability. Deuterium and Tritium nuclei have all together approximately five time the mass of a single neutron therefore the probability of deuterium to tritium fusion to Helium 4 is assumed approximately 5 times less than the neutron capture inside the nucleus of deuterium to form tritium. That has something even more positive to say for the safety of this experiment and about the radioactivity because as the heavier nuclei are formed it becomes more difficult to find the kinetic energy to overcome the binding energy and split the atom of further elements on the periodic table order.
Observations after the reactions. The water becomes more crystal clear and by giving a plant leaf in the tank the dilution of nitrogen of it is observed very distinctively. Also by adding a dead fish of the size of 5 cm the decomposers that give colour and undesirable effects to an aquarium are not observed in the water column. The mineral salts bound with the water ions no longer exist on that form since a lot of water molecules have been broken to simpler elements after the application of the electricity. The mineral salts precipitate at the bottom of the tank and they don’t let the bacteria to grow in the water column. The radiation produced affects also the bacteria on their reproductive efficacy. Bacteria cannot find in the water column nutrition and also at the time of the radiation production the transformation process of transferring DNA from the bacteria donors to the bacteria recipients is altered and becomes ineffective.
Alpha particle radiation in a small dose. Is of low harm because the skin of the human body blocks it. Helium has a melting point of 268.6 degrees Celsius and a melting point of 268 degrees Celsius. It starts its formation from liquid water in this experiment but is too small the temperature difference it has from the state of liquid to the gas state. Helium can fuse together to form Beryllium that produces effective low dose of gamma radiation that is more harmful to humans but in small quantities this is not a concern.
Proton decay. In particle physics proton decay is a hypothetical form of radioactive decay in which the proton decays into a neutral pion and a positron.
The Higgs Boson field unlike other known fields such as the electromagnetic field it has a non-zero constant value in vacuum. This reveals the creating power of this field in making new particles or to give mass to particles and decide their minimum sizes. Therefore it would be more probable, that the forces of the weak interaction field increase the possibility of fusion reaction in the water medium.
The presence of the Higgs Boson field explains why some fundamental particles have mass and without the presence of this field they would be expected to be without mass. Although the Higgs field is no zero everywhere and its effects ubiquitous, proving its existence was far from easy. In principle it can be proved to exist by detecting its excitations that manifest it as Higgs particle. Further on the excitation or the expression of it is important the yield of Boson Higgs field in producing other combinations of masses.
Higgs Boson has a mass of 125 – 127 GeV/c², which is far greater than the mass of a proton or a mass of a neutron and this particle is consistent with the short range of the weak force. The force is in fact termed weak because its field strength over a given distance is typically several orders of magnitude less than that of the strong nuclear forces or the electromagnetic forces. (From Wikipedia).
Helium 3 is considered as a fermion and can’t have a constant non zero value. It fuses with deuterium or with another Helium 3 into Helium 4. Helium 4 is a boson and can have a non zero constant value. Helium 4 is considered as a force carrier because it remains longer without reacting to other substances, whereas Helium 3 is associated with matter because it fuses to other matters such as Helium 4 easily. Helium 4 is by far more abundant than Helium 3 and accounts to 99.99986% of the Helium on Earth.
It is impossible for the fermion force fields to have a large constant non-zero average value in nature. Bosons can be non-zero on average. Fermions can pair with each other or anti fermions to make composite bosons and those composite bosons can be non-zero on average.
Deuterium as a boson and as a fermion. Deuterium nucleus is considered as a boson, whereas deuterium atom is considered as a fermion and deuterium molecule is considered as a boson.
Figure 1. Deuterium as a boson or a fermion in different quantum states.
Because deuterium atom is a fermion means that by applying voltage to it the probability of losing its electron is explained even by the particle physics theory. It either becomes a nucleus of deuterium or combines with other deuterium atoms and becomes a molecule of deuterium. The deuterium atom is more probable to increase the concentration of deuterium nucleus as opposed to stay as deuterium atom because deuterium atom is a fermion field. This fact increases the chances of deuterium nuclei to collide into Helium 3 and because Helium 3 is a fermion also its residence period is short and provide the more stable Helium 4. The conclusion is that under circumstances Laurent the French Physicist is right and deuterium is radioactive because eventually gives alpha particle radiation with very high probability. But more importantly the Particle Physics theory give certainty about understanding the results of reactions and the products they produce.
Any particle or element, which is comprised of an even number of fermions, is a boson, while any particle, which is comprised of an odd number of fermions, is a fermion. Fermions have half integral spins and it can only exist one fermion per single quantum state. Electrons, protons, neutrons, quarks, and neutrinos are fermions. Photons and gluons are bosons and they have integral spin.
Figure 2. Quantum states decide the direction of reactions.
Deuterium probability to fuse together into Helium 3 and consequently into Helium 4. In a certain quantum state as quantum state 1 or 2 an odd number of fermions may exist in the water medium. On the assumption that free electrons pass between two deuterium bosons nuclei then the possibility exists that the deuterium nuclei and one electron are all together a fermion, because of having a combination of three particles. When a free proton from the protium nucleus of hydrogen isotope was stripped off its electron that situation with one deuterium nucleus forms another quantum state with an odd number of fermions at a specific time. These quantum states are not stable and Helium 3 is going to proceed in the chain reaction as shown in the figure above. The new quantum state is again a fermion being not stable because Helium 3 is composed of three fermions in the strong force field. Helium 3 fermion therefore will fuse either with the deuterium or with another helium 3 nucleus to form the stable boson Helium 4. The final reaction of the figure above yields protons in other words hydrogen protium nucleus and energy of 18.4 MeV per reaction.
Probability of protons and neutrons to stay in the water tank. 0.67 eV is the energy needed by a proton or neutron to escape the earth’s gravity. That means that the protons and the neutrons are in an ascending motion by applying the voltage and the chances to react are confined to the time they stay in the water tank before they escape to space.
Tritium as a fermion and its fusion to Helium 4 with deuterium – Particle Physics theory usage. Tritium is a fermion and follows Fermi – Dirac Statistics it has an odd number of fermions one proton and two neutrons and by being unstable, it can fuse to helium 4, which has two protons and two neutrons. Even if Helium passes temporarily from the state of Helium 3 it will not stay long and will fuse again to Helium 4.
Deuterium is also produced in heavy water moderated reactors when the deuterium nucleus capture a neutron. According to Frank H. Shu Professor of Astronomy University of California Berkeley in the book The Sun as a Star – The Physical Universe an Introduction to Astronomy – in the chapter Nuclear Forces and Nuclear Reactions published by University Science Book 1982 Sausalito California whether a neutron will convert into a proton without beta decay or even a slow neutron may be absorbed by an atomic nucleus making the later heavier by one atomic mass one baryon that depends on the r, s process described by Burbridge, Fowler and Hoyle.
Figure 3. Deuterium feasibility to fuse with a neutron to tritium.
By adding on the above the basic idea of the weak interaction force theory these two theses agree in the sense that the deuterium nucleus, which is a boson, has chances to form tritium when a fast or even slow moving neutron is passing by the nuclei of deuterium. This quantum state would have on an odd number of particles therefore it would be unstable and it would form a new quantum state with four particles including probable one electron in the tritium nucleus which would be a tritium atom. The free neutrons necessary for the reaction of the above figure can begin to exist by the deuterium to deuterium fusion to Helium 3 with one neutron release that may or not beta decay.
Figure 4. Deuterium to deuterium fusion causes free neutrons to release.
The next reaction of tritium nucleus that may concern is its spontaneous fission to deuterium because tritium is a fermion and therefore is not stable to exist for long time.
Figure 5. Tritium fission to deuterium
The above figure is a probable quantum state in the sense that tritium may not find on this particular quantum anything else to react and there is probability to make fission reactions to deuterium, but the chances of which reaction takes place firstly or secondly depends again on the r,s process description or this explanation can come from the weak force interaction field by looking in close detail.
Only one fermion can occupy a particular quantum state at any given time and if multiple fermions have the same spatial probability distribution then at least one property of each fermion such as its spin must be different otherwise there is going to happen a reaction to a boson quantum state.
Properties of helium 3. At low temperatures fermions show super fluidity for uncharged particles and superconductivity for charged particles. Helium 3 at 0.025 K is a super fluid with zero viscosity and can flow without loss of kinetic energy. By managing to capture the rare in probability quantum state of Helium 3 and keep the super fluid that means that the energy stored by the series of reactions can be used further. Helium 4 has a boiling point of 4.2 K is the lowest of any known substance and as a boson it has zero spin whereas resembles on that attribute the Higgs Boson particle that also has zero spin.
Electrons are very different than nucleons. Electrons are leptons whereas protons and neutrons are made up of fundamental particles called quarks. The difference between quarks and leptons is that leptons are unaffected by the strong interaction carried by gluons. What binds ‘’glues’’ the quarks in a nucleus together is from the strong interaction whereas electrons are basically insensitive to this force so they don’t stick together and they rather form in high density an electron cloud called plasma. However they can interact via the weak force, allowing an electron to participate as an energy carrier in reactions where a proton for example decays into a neutron and an antineutrino. The weak force interaction field reveals an explanation and gives understanding points to the even higher probability of the actual fusion of deuterium with deuterium to give Helium 3 and many other fusions, as for a certain quantum state. In case that one particle is missing to explain the formation of new nuclei then this gap is filled by the weak force interaction field, which shows in a way where that particle may come from.
New life found on water supply tubes used as an aquatic life limiting factor. The description of the whole above experiment comes with the proof for the weak interaction force field that it is a radioactive experiment on the benefit of clearing the water in an aquarium. Small larvae like organisms that make spores in the water supply tubes and reveal themselves in the tank can survive this electric water clarifying application and give a sign and a biological measure of the aquatic life tolerance.